By Laws

Mehrgan Bylaws

Mehrgan Cultural Foundation is a non-political, non-ideological and non-profit organization which has been established in1995 in San Diego California.

A Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation

ARTICLE 1 OFFICES

SECTION 1.1. PRINCIPAL OFFICE

The principal office of the corporation for the transaction of its business is located in 11932 Bernardo Plaza Drive, San Diego, California 92128.

SECTION 1.2. CHANGE OF ADDRESS

The county of the corporation’s principal office can be changed only by amendment of these Bylaws and not otherwise. The Board of Directors may, however, change the principal office from one location to another within the named county by noting the changed address and effective date below, and such changes of address shall not be deemed an amendment of these Bylaws:

SECTION 1.3. OTHER OFFICES

The corporation may also have offices at such other places, within or without the State of California, where it is qualified to do business, as its business may require and as the board of directors may, from time to time designate.

ARTICLE 2 PURPOSES

SECTION 2.1. OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSES

This corporation is a nonprofit public benefit corporation and is organized for charitable purposes and not for the private gain of any person.

SECTION 2.2. LIMITATIONS

Such purposes for which this corporation is organized are exclusively charitable and educational within the meaning of Section 501(c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. Not withstanding any other provision of the Articles of these Bylaws, the corporation shall not carry on any activities not permitted to be carried on (a) by a corporation exempt from corresponding provision of any future United States Internal Revenue Law, or (b) by a corporation contributions to which are deductible under Section 170(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (or the corresponding provision of any future United States Internal Revenue Law).

ARTICLE 3 DIRECTORS

SECTION 3.1. NUMBER

The corporation shall have seven (7) to eleven (11) directors. collectively they shall be known as the Board of Directors. The number may be changed by amendment of this Bylaw, or by repeal of this Bylaw and adoption of a new Bylaw, as provided in these Bylaws.

SECTION 3.2. POWERS

Subject to the limitation of the Articles of Incorporation, of the Bylaws, and of the Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law of the State of California as to action to be authorized or approved by directors, and subject to the duties of Directors as prescribed by the Bylaws, all corporate powers shall be exercised by or under the authority of, and the business and affairs of the corporation shall be controlled by, the Board of Directors. Without limiting the foregoing, the Board of Directors shall have the power to levy dues and assessments, to select and remove all officers, agents, employees and contractors, and to fix reasonable compensation therefore, to authorize and empower officers or agents to enter into contracts and other commitments on behalf of the corporation, and to appoint and delegate responsibilities and authority to committees, officers and agents.

SECTION 3.3. DUTIES

It shall be the duty of the directors to:

  • a) Perform any and all duties imposed on them collectively or individually by law, by the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or by these Bylaws;
  • b) Appoint and remove, employ and discharge, and, except as otherwise provided in these Bylaws, prescribe the duties and fix the compensation, if any, of all officers, agents and employees of the corporation;
  • c) Supervise all officers, agents and employees of the corporation to assure that their duties are performed properly;
  • (d) Meet at such times and places as required by these Bylaws;
  • (e) Register their addresses with the Secretary of the corporation and notices of meetings mailed or telegraphed to them at such addresses shall be valid notices thereof.

SECTION 3.4. TERMS OF OFFICE

Remaining directors shall be appointed by the three original directors within three (3) months of the signing of these bylaws. There are no term limits for the directors.

SECTION 3.5. COMPENSATION

Directors shall serve without compensation. In addition, they shall be allowed reasonable advancement or reimbursement of expenses incurred in the performance of their regular duties as specified in Section 3 of this Article. Directors may not be compensated for rendering services to the corporation in any capacity other than director unless such other compensation is reasonable and is allowable under the provisions of Section 6 of this Article.

SECTION 3.6 PLACE OF MEETINGS

Meetings shall be held at any place previously designated by the founding Directors of the corporation unless otherwise provided by the board or at such place within or without the State of California, which has been designated from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors. In the absence of such designation, any meeting not held at the principal office of the corporation shall be valid only if held on the written consent of all directors given either before or after the meeting and filed with the Secretary of the corporation or after all board members have been given written notice of the meeting as hereinafter provided for special meetings of the board. Any meeting, regular or special, may be held by conference telephone or similar communications equipment, so as long as all directors participating in such meeting can hear one another.

SECTION 3.7. REGULAR AND ANNUAL MEETINGS

Regular meetings of Directors shall be held on the first Monday of each month at 7:30 PM, unless such day falls on a legal holiday, in which event the regular meeting shall be held at the same hour and place on the next business day, or on any other day previously designated by the Board.

SECTION 3.8. NOTICE OF MEETINGS

Regular meetings of the board may be held without notice. Special meetings of the board shall be held upon four (4) days notice by first class-mail or forty-eight (48) hours’ notice delivered personally or by telephone or telegraph. If sent by mail or telegraph, the notice shall be deemed to be delivered on its deposit in the mail or on its delivery to the telegraph company. Such notices shall be addressed to each director at his or her address as shown on the books of the corporation. Notice of the time and place of holding and adjourned meeting need not be given to absent directors if the time and place of the adjourned meeting are fixed at the meeting adjourned and if such adjourned meeting is held no more than twenty-four (24) hours from the time of the original meeting. Notice shall be given of any adjourned regular or special meeting to directors absent from the original meeting if the adjourned meeting is held more than twenty-four (24) hours from the time of the original meeting.

SECTION 3.9. CONTENTS OF NOTICE

Notice of meetings not herein dispensed with shall specify the place, day and hour of the meeting. The purpose of any board meeting need not be specified in the notice.

SECTION 3.10. WAIVER OF NOTICE AND CONSENT TO HOLDING MEETINGS

The transactions of any meeting of the board, however called and noticed or wherever held, are as valid as though the meetings had been duly held after proper call and notice, provided a quorum, as hereinafter defined, is present and provided that either before or after the meeting each director not present signs a waiver of notice, a consent to holding the meeting, or and approval of the minutes thereof. All such waivers, consents, or approvals shall be filed with the corporate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting.

SECTION 3.11. QUORUM FOR MEETINGS

A quorum shall consist of at least one half (%50) number of Directors plus one (1). Except as otherwise provided in these Bylaws or in the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or by law, no business shall be considered by the board at any meeting at which a quorum, as hereinafter defined, is not present, and the only motion which the Chair shall entertain at such meeting is a motion to adjourn. However, a majority of the directors present at such meeting may adjourn from time to time until the time fixed for the next regular meeting of the board.

When a meeting is adjourned for lack of a quorum, it shall not be necessary to give any notice of time and place of the adjourned meeting or of the business to be transacted at such meeting, other than by announcement at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken, except as provided in section 10 of this Article.

The directors present at a duly called and held meeting at which a quorum is initially present may continue to do business notwithstanding the loss of a quorum at the meeting due to a withdrawal of directors from the meeting, provided that any action thereafter taken must be approved by at least a majority of the required quorum for such meeting or such greater percentage as may be required by law, or the Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws of this corporation.

SECTION 3.12. MAJORITY ACTION AS BOARD ACTION

Every act or decision done or made by a majority of the directors present at a meeting duly held at which a quorum is present is the act of the Board of Directors, unless the Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws of this corporation, or provisions in the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law, particularly those provisions relating to appointment of committees (Section 5212), approval of contracts or transactions in which a director has material financial interest (Section 5233) and indemnification of directors (Section 5238e), require a greater percentage or different voting rules for approval of a matter by the board. Each director shall have equal vote.

SECTION 3.13. CONDUCT OF MEETINGS

Meetings of the Board of Directors shall be presided over by the Chairperson of the Board, or, if no such person has been so designated or, in his or her absence, the President of the corporation or, in his or her absence, by the Vice President of the corporation, or in the absence of each of these persons, by a Chairperson chosen by a majority of the directors present at the meeting. The Secretary of the corporation shall act as secretary of all meetings of the board, provided that, in his or her absence, the presiding officer shall appoint another person to act as Secretary of the Meeting.

Meetings shall be governed by “Roberts’ Rules of Order”, as such rules may be revised from time to time, insofar as such rules are not inconsistent with or in conflict with these Bylaws, with the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or with provisions of law.

SECTION 3.14. ACTION BY UNANIMOUS WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT MEETING

Any action required or permitted to be taken by the Board of Directors under any provision of law may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the board shall individually or collectively consent in writing to such action. For the purpose of this Section only, “all members of the board” shall not include any “interested director” as defined in Section 5233 of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law. Such written consent or consents shall be filed with the minutes of the proceedings of the board. Such action by written Consent shall have the same force and effect as the unanimous vote of the directors. Any certificate or other document filed under any provision of law which relates to action so taken shall state the action was taken by unanimous written consent of the Board of Directors without a meeting and that the Bylaws of this corporation authorize the directors to so act, and such statement shall be prima facie evidence of such authority.

SECTION 3.15. VACANCIES

Three initial founding directors of the Mehragan Organization are herein identified as 1) Mr. Hasan Firouzi; 2) Mrs. Faezeh Firouzi; and 3) Mr. Reza Khabazian shall appoint the initial board of directors within 90 days of signing of this bylaws.

Vacancies on the Board of Directors shall exist (1) on the death, resignation or removal of any director, and (2) whenever the number of authorized directors is increased. The Board of Directors may declare vacant the office of a director who has been declared of unsound mind by a final order of court, or convicted of a felony, or been found by a final order or judgment of any court to have breached any duty under Section 5230 and following of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law.

Directors may be removed without cause by a fifty percent (%50) of existing directors plus two (2) that are then in office.

Any director may resign effective upon giving notice to the Chairperson of the Board, the President, the Secretary, or the Board of Directors, unless the notice specifies a later time for the effectiveness of such resignation. No director may resign if the corporation would then be left without a duly elected director or directors in charge of its affairs, except upon notice to the Attorney General.

Vacancies on the board may be filled by approval of the board or, if the number of directors then in office is less than a quorum, by (1) the unanimous written consent of the directors then in office, (2) the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office at a meeting held pursuant to notice or waivers of notice complying with this Article of these Bylaws, or (3) a sole remaining director. If this corporation has members, however, vacancies created by the removal of a director may be filled only by the approval of the members. The members, if any, of this corporation may elect a director at any time to fill any vacancy not filled by the directors.

A person elected to fill a vacancy as provided by this Section shall hold office until his or her death, resignation, or removal from office.

SECTION 3.16. NON-LIABILITY OF DIRECTORS

The directors shall not be personally liable for liabilities, or other obligations of the corporation.

SECTION 3.17. INDEMNIFICATION BY CORPORATION OF DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES, AND OTHER AGENTS

To the extent that a person who is, or was, a director, officer, employee or other agent of this corporation has been successful on the merits in defense of any civil, criminal, administrative or investigative proceeding brought to procure a judgment against such person by reason of the fact that he or she is, or was, an agent of the corporation, or has been successful in defense of any claim, issue or matter, therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with such proceeding.

If such person either settles any such claim or sustains a judgment against him or her, then indemnification against expenses, judgments, fines, settlements and other amounts reasonably incurred in connection with such proceedings shall be provided by this corporation but only to the extent allowed by, and in accordance with the requirements of, Section 5238 of the California nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law.

SECTION 3.18. INSURANCE FOR CORPORATE AGENTS

The Board of Directors may adopt a resolution authorizing the purchase and maintenance of insurance on behalf of any agent of the corporation (including a director, officer, employee or other agent of the corporation) against any liability other than for violating provisions of law relating to self-dealing (Section 5233 of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law) asserted against or incurred by the agent in such capacity or arising out of the agent’s status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify the agent against such liability under the provisions of Section 5238 of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law.

ARTICLE 4 OFFICERS

SECTION 4.1. NUMBER OF OFFICERS

The officers of the corporation shall be a President, vice president, a Secretary, and a Treasurer. Any number of offices may be held by the same person except that neither the Secretary nor the Treasurer may at the same time also serve as the President.

SECTION 4.2. QUALIFICATION, ELECTION, AND TERM OF OFFICE

Any person may serve as officer of this corporation. Officers shall be elected by the Board of Directors at any time, and each officer shall hold office until he or she resigns, is removed, is otherwise disqualified to serve, or until his or her successor shall be elected and qualified, whichever occurs first. Officers shall be elected or reelected by the board each year on first Monday of December and new officers shall take office on the first of January of the following year.

SECTION 4.3. SUBORDINATE OFFICERS

The Board of Directors may appoint such officers or agents as it may deem desirable, and such officers shall serve such terms, have such authority, and perform such duties as may be prescribe from time to time by the Board of Directors.

SECTION 4.4. REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION

Any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by the Board of Directors, at any time. Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the Board of Directors or to the President or Secretary of the corporation. Any such resignation shall take effect at the date of receipt of such notice or at any later date specified therein, and, unless otherwise specified therein, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. The above provisions of this Section shall be superseded by any conflicting terms of a Contract which has been approved or ratified by the Board of Directors relating to the employment of any officer of the corporation.

SECTION 4.5. VACANCIES

Any vacancy caused by the death, resignation, removal, disqualification, or otherwise, of any officer shall be filled by the Board of Directors. In the event of a vacancy in any office other than that of President, such vacancy may be filled temporarily by appointment by the President until such time as the Board shall fill the vacancy. Vacancies occurring in offices of officers appointed at the discretion of the board may or may not be filled as the board shall determine.

SECTION 4.6. DUTIES OF PRESIDENT

The President shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation and shall, subject to the control of the Board of Directors, supervise and control the affairs of the corporation and the activities of the officers. He or she shall perform all duties incident to his or her office and such other duties as may be required by law, by the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or by these Bylaws, or which may be prescribed from time to time by the Board of Directors. Unless another person is specifically appointed as Chairperson of the Board of Directors, he or she shall preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors. If applicable, the President shall preside at all meetings of the members. Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, by the Articles of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws, he or she shall, in the name of the corporation, execute such deeds, mortgages, bonds, contracts, checks, or other instruments which may from time to time be authorized by the Board of Directors.

SECTION 4.7. DUTIES OF VICE PRESIDENT

In the absence of the President or in the event of his or her inability or refusal to act, the Vice President shall perform all the duties of the President, and when so acting shall have all the powers of, and be subject to all the resolution on, the President. The Vice President shall have other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by law, by the Articles of Incorporation, by these Bylaws, or as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors.

SECTION 4.8. DUTIES OF SECRETARY

Certify and keep at the principal office of the corporation the original, or a copy of these Bylaws. Keep at the principal office of the corporation or at such other place as the board may determine, a book of minutes of all meetings of the directors, and, if applicable, meetings of committees of directors and of members, recording therein the time and place of holding, whether regular or special, how called, how notice thereof was given, the names of those present or represented at the meeting, and the proceedings thereof.

See that all notices are duly given in accordance with the provisions of these Bylaws or as required by law.

Be custodian of the records and of the seal of the corporation and see that the seal is affixed to all duly executed documents. The execution of which on behalf of the corporation under its seal is authorized by law or these Bylaws.

Keep at the principal office of the corporation a membership book containing the name and address of each and any members, and in the case where any membership has been terminated, he or she shall record such fact in the membership book together with the date on which such membership ceased.

Exhibit at all reasonable times to any director of the corporation, or to his or her agent or attorney, on request therefore, the Bylaws, the membership book, and the minutes of the proceedings of the directors of the corporation.

In general, perform all duties incident to the office of Secretary and such other duties as may be required by law, by the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or by these Bylaws, or which may be assigned to him or her from time to time by the Board of Directors.

SECTION 4.9. DUTIES OF TREASURER

Subject to the provisions of these Bylaws relating to the “Executive of Instrument, Deposits and Funds,” the Treasurer shall:

  • Have charge and custody of, and be responsible for, all funds and securities of the corporation, and deposit all such funds in the name of the corporation in such banks, trust companies, or other depositories as shall be selected by the Board of Directors.
  • Receive, and give receipt for, monies corporation from any source whatsoever.
  • Disburse, or cause to be disbursed, the funds of the corporation as may be directed by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements.
  • Keep and maintain adequate and correct accounts of the corporation’s properties and business transactions, including accounts of its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains and losses.
  • Exhibit at all reasonable times the books of account and financial records to any of the corporation, or to his or agent or attorney, on request therefore.
  • Render to the President and directors, whenever requested, an account of any or all of his or her transactions as Treasurer and of the financial condition of the corporation.
  • Prepare, or cause to be prepared, and certify or caused to be certified, the financial statements to be included in any required reports.
  • In general, perform all duties incident to the office of Treasurer and such other duties as may be required by law, by the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or by these Bylaws, or which may be assigned to him or her from time to time by the Board of Directors.

SECTION 4.10. COMPENSATION

The salaries of the officers, if any, shall be fixed from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors, and no officer shall be prevented from receiving such salary by reason of the fact that he or she is also a director of the corporation, provided, however, that such compensation paid a director for serving as an officer of this corporation shall only be allowed if permitted under the provisions of Article 3, Section 6 of these Bylaws. In all cases, any salaries received by officers of this corporation shall be reasonable and given in return for services actually rendered for the corporation which relate to the performance of the charitable or public purposes of this corporation.

ARTICLE 5 COMMITTEES

SECTION 5.1.

The corporation shall have such other committees as may from time to time be designated by resolution of the Board of Directors. Such other committees may consist of persons who are not also members of the board. These additional committees shall act in an advisory capacity only to the board and shall be titled as “advisory” committees.

SECTION 5.2. MEETINGS AND ACTION OF COMMITTEES

Meetings and action of committees shall be governed by, notice, held and taken in accordance with the provisions of these Bylaws concerning meetings of the Board of Directors, with such changes in the context of such Bylaw provision as are necessary to substitute the committee and its members for the Directors and its members, except that the time for regular meetings of committees may be fixed by resolution of the board of Directors or by the committee. The time for special meetings of committees may also be fixed by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may also adopt rules and regulars pertaining to the conduct of meetings of committees to the extent that such rules and regulations are not inconsistent with the provisions of these Bylaws.

ARTICLE 6 EXECUTIVE OF INSTRUMENTS, DEPOSITS AND FUNDS

SECTION 6.1. EXECUTIVE OF INSTRUMENTS

The Board of Directors, except as otherwise provided in these Bylaws, may by resolution authorize any officer or agent of the corporation to enter into any contract or execute and deliver an instrument in the name of and on behalf of the corporation, an such authority may be general or confined to specific instances.

Unless or authorized, no officer, agent, or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable monetarily for any purpose or in any amount.

SECTION 6.2. CHECKS AND NOTES

Except as otherwise specifically determined by resolution of the Board of Directors, or as otherwise required by law, checks, drafts, promissory notes, orders for the payment of money, and other evidence of indebtedness of the corporation shall be signed by the Treasurer and countersigned by the President of the corporation.

SECTION 6.3. DEPOSITS

All funds of the corporation shall be deposited from time to time to the credit of the corporation in such banks, trust companies, or other depositories as the Board of Directors may select.

SECTION 6.4. GIFTS

The Board of Directors may accept on behalf of the corporation any donation, grant, gift, bequest, or devise solely for the corporation and for charitable or public purposes of this corporation. The Board of Directors are prohibited from receiving any gifts or engage in any transactions with the corporation for the benefit of any director of corporation.

ARTICLE 7 CORPORATE RECORDS, REPORTS AND SEAL

SECTION 7.1. MAINTENANCE OF CORPORATE RECORDS

The corporation shall keep at its principal office in the State of California:

(a) Minutes of all meetings of directors, committees of the board and, if this corporation has members, of all meetings of members, indicating the time and place of holding such meetings, whether regular or special, how called, the notice given, and the names of those present and the proceedings thereof;

(b) Adequate and correct books and records of account, including accounts of its properties and business transactions and accounts of its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursement, gains and losses;

(c) A record of its members, if any, indicating their names and addresses and, if applicable, the class of membership held by each member and the termination date of any membership;

(d) A copy of the corporation’s Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws as amended to date, which shall be open to inspection by the members, if any, of the corporation at all reasonable times during office hours.

SECTION 7.2. CORPORATE SEAL

The Board of Directors may adopt, use, and at will alter, a corporate seal. Such seal shall be kept at the principal office at the corporation. Failure to affix the seal to corporate instruments, however, shall not affect the validity of any such instrument.

SECTION 7.3. DIRECTORS’ INSPECTION RIGHTS

Every director shall have the absolute right at any responsible time to inspect and copy all books, records and documents of every kind and to inspect the physical properties of the corporation.

SECTION 7.4. RIGHT TO COPY AND MAKE EXTRACTS

Any inspection under the provisions of this Article may be made in person or by agent or attorney and the right to inspection includes the right to copy and make extracts.

SECTION 7.5. ANNUAL REPORT

The board shall cause an annual report to be furnished not later than one hundred and twenty (120) days after the close of the corporation’s fiscal year to all directors of the corporation, which report shall contain the following information in appropriate detail:

(a) The assets and liabilities, including the trust funds, of the corporation as of the end of the fiscal year;

(b) The principal changes in assets and liabilities, including the trust funds, during the fiscal year;

(c) The revenue or receipts of the corporation both unrestricted and restricted to particular purpose, for the fiscal year;

(d) The expenses or disbursements of the corporation, for both general and restricted purposes, during the fiscal year;

(e) Any information required by Section 7 of this Article.

The annual report shall be accompanied by any report thereon of independent accounts, or, if statements were prepared without audit from the books and the records of the corporation.

ARTICLE 8 FISCAL YEAR

SECTION 8.1. FISCAL YEAR OF THE CORPORATION

The fiscal year of the corporation shall begin on the first day of January and end on the last day of December in each year.

ARTICLE 9 AMENDMENT OF BYLAWS

SECTION 1. AMENDMENT

Subject to any provision of law applicable to the amendment of Bylaws of public benefit nonprofit corporations, these Bylaws, or any of them, may be altered, amended, or repealed and new Bylaws adopted Subject to the approval of the Board of Directors to change or repeal these Bylaws under Section 5150 of the Corporations Code.

ARTICLE 10 AMENDMENT OF ARTICLES

SECTION 1. CERTAIN AMENDMENTS

Notwithstanding the above Sections of this Article, this corporation shall not amend its Articles of Incorporation to alter any statement which appears in the original Article of Incorporation of the names and addresses of the first directors of this corporation, nor the name and address of its initial agent, except to correct an error in such statement or to delete such statement after the corporation has filed a “Statement by a Domestic Non-Profit Corporation” pursuant to Section 6210 of California Nonprofit Corporation Law.

ARTICLE 11 PROHIBITING AGAINST SHARING CORPORATE PROFITS AND ASSETS

SECTION 11.1. PROHIBITION AGAINST SHARING CORPORATE PROFITS AND ASSETS

No member, director, officer, employee, or other person connected with this corporation, or any private individual, shall receive at any time any of the net earnings or pecuniary profit from the operations of the corporation, provided, however, that this provision shall not prevent payment to any such person of reasonable compensation for the services performed for the corporation in effecting any of its public or charitable purposes, provided that such compensation is otherwise permitted by these Bylaws and is fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors; and no such person or persons shall be entitled to share in the distribution of, and shall not receive, any of the corporate assets on dissolution of the corporation.

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